Question no 1: Sir, I have read about Big Bang theory. I wish to know more about it. Will you please tell me something about essential features of the theory?
Answer: Yes, I shall give you a brief introduction of Big Bang Theory. The Big Bang theory is the most commonly accepted model for the origin of the Universe since it is an experimentally derived theory. The underlying principle behind the Big Bang is that, the Universe was in a compressed state 4 to 5 million years ago. After the Big Bang, the Universe started expanding which is continuing yet. The experimental proof for this is available from the outer space. Distribution of galaxies extends uniformly in all directions and because of gravitation they move with respect to each other. They move away from the Milky Way with speeds that increase with distance which is a standing evidence for the Big Bang.
Q 2: Sir, what happened after the Big Bang?
Answer: Though this theory is accepted by and large as the only theory which explains the origin of the Universe, the theory itself postulates or in fact, provides for a ‘hot, dense matter’ during the Big Bang. It further assumes Gravitational effects which are of high magnitudes. As per the theory, the entire fate of the Universe was decided in five minutes after Big bang and after that, nothing substantial took place.
Q 3: In such a case, can I say that Big bang supposes existence of matter even before Big Bang?
Answer: Definitely yes. Also we should consider what is the source and what is the cause for such an enormous action. According to law of conservation, from nothing, ‘something’ could not have come. In other words, if it could have come from nothing, laws of conservation fail. Hindu Religion states that there is an Almighty, Who is the ultimate commander from ‘Zero’. I am not wrong if I say that there is some hesitation on the part of the scientific community itself to accept Big Bang theory because it postulates such pre-existence of the Universe,
Such pre-existence of matter is taken as the first postulate for our consideration of The Double Universe theory.
Q 4: Sir, it seems there are some other models for the formation of the Universe. I have read about Steady State Model or ‘The Cosmological Principle’. Please tell me something about it Sir.
Answer: There is one weakly accepted alternative theory to Big Bang which was supported by none other than Albert Einstein applying his General theory of Relativity known as ‘ Steady State Model’ or ‘The Cosmological Principle’
“The Cosmological Principle” or the steady state model proclaims that the Universe ‘always exists’ as it is and there is no change in the overall situation especially with respect to the observer from any point in the Universe. Because of the changing positions of the Universe, this theory has gained momentum, as observed by the red-shifts. While the Cosmological Principle is able to explain the present state of the Universe, it is unable to explain the cause of the Universe. To explain the origin, the Big Bang model is used.
‘The Universe always exists’ is a very useful postulate to propound Double Universe Theory and it is the second postulate.
Q no 5: There is one more theory known as ‘The Oscillating Universe’. May I know about it Sir?
Answer: To explain the situation ‘before’ the Big Bang, a concept of “Oscillating Universe” was put forward by the Russian Astronomer Ernst J. Opik (1893-1985). He says that after, say 25,000 million years, the expanding Universe will stop expansion and start shrinking as a stone thrown upwards, having exhausted all its energy comes back to the ground, due to gravity.
If we assume the age of the Universe as 4,500 million years it means that the Universe exploded 4,500 million years ago. The energy for this explosion must have come from within the matter itself known as the nuclear fluid.
German Priest and Astronomer George Lemaitre (1894-1985) was the first to visualize such an initial state of the Universe. He pointed out that at the density of the nuclear fluid, this state would correspond to a “GIANT ATOM” or a primeval atom or Egg, from which the Universe hatched. This “egg” must have been very much unstable as the radioactive unstable atoms: It must have decayed simultaneously exploding at the instance it was formed. Our present Universe would thus consist of the debris of radioactive decay of one huge, single atom.
How did this primeval atom come into being? On one hand it should have been created. Creation is beyond the scope of Science. The alternative is an assumption of a previous state, “a collapsing” Universe which converged to a single spot from all directions. The collapse was stopped at the maximum possible density of matter, whose elastic forces sent the Universe back expanding like a ball rebounding from the wall. Thus the theory of Opik presumes a “Cosmic pendulum”(Oscillating Universe).
Thus the third postulate for the Double Universe is taken from this. There is one Universe which collapses.
Q 6: Now may I consolidate the postulates of ‘Double Universe Theory?’
Answer: You are welcome to do it.
Student’s Answer: Let us consolidate the three postulates:
Postulate 1: There is a Universe which expands. (Big bang)
Postulate 2: The Universe is always intact (Steady State model)
Postulate 3: There is a Universe which collapses. (Oscillating Universe)
Combining all the three, we propose The Double Universe Theory.
Master: Very good. You are right.
Q 7: I have understood the postulates. Now I am ready to know the Double Universe Theory. Please tell me sir.
Answer: Experimental proofs for such a large cosmic scale theories will not be easily available. The Oscillating Universe and the steady state models were quoted here to explain that there are believers that the Universe existed even before the Big Bang and secondly the Universe will remain forever. The Holistic Philosophy suggests a “Double” Universe theory as: One Universe expanding, another Universe shrinking, both occurring simultaneously to maintain the conservation. It may be noted that all the three theories, Big Bang, steady state model and the oscillating theory fit in well in the Double Universe theory. Big bang explains birth of present Universe, Oscillating Universe assumes one Universe (Shrinking Universe) before big bang and Steady state model explains that the Universe exists always.
Q 8. Okay Sir. Big bang is regarding the material Universe. Is it possible that Life and Intelligence also existed before Big bang?
Answer: The existing theories of evolution do not imagine that life existed before the birth of the Universe. Universe came into being as a result of big bang. The Galaxies, the Milky Way, the Solar system, Earth followed in the process of evolution. Finally the present Life in Earth appeared and evolved into the present form. We are able to visualize life on Earth only in that order. When there is the possibility of either matter or energy, or both existing even before the Big Bang (Steady State Model and Oscillating Universe), we can very well construe that Intelligent life also existed before Big bang. Life might have been there in some form though not in the present biological form. The fact is that we are unable to imagine any life without material knowledge and also the material Universe. So, the logical conclusion is that, in case, material Universe existed before Big Bang, Life also might have existed along with it in some form.
There can be an important question which I myself will ask on your behalf. How Life can withstand the Oscillations of the Universe? The answer is simple. It will withstand the oscillations like it withstands Earth’s revolution and revolutions of other Heavenly bodies.
Q 9: Sir, Can you please support your theory with some evidences?
Answer: Why not? We are seeing two aspects of the same thing in various aspects of life. Zero has two sides, one side positive and the other negative. Positive and negative freeze to become zero and then expand on both sides. A coin has two sides. Nobody can make a coin with one side. A magnet has two poles. Electricity has two charges, the most important aspect of this is ‘they attract each other’,
Life is impossible without two sex. In Hindu Mythology, there is a God with one half as a male and the other half as a female frozen in a single body.
Birth and death are two sides of the same life. Birth is associated with death from the moment a life is born. A life not only lives each moment but also dies each moment.
Let me quote the following saying from Rig Veda which states:
‘Ohm Tat Sat (Rig Veda), which means that ‘It just is’ and is the permanent Reality which is possible by freezing the two opposites into one. That is ‘Double Universe Theory’.
Student: Thank you Sir.
Master: My blessings to you.